Hello welcome back to english master steady lesson today we're going to take a look at another problem related to the language in the previous lesson we talked about the development of language how it first came into being and how it absorbed the different sounds of natures as well as was accompanied by the different gestures during the course of interaction today we will try to answer this question which is very important one what is language.
We know how it developed but then do we know what exactly it is how do we define language what is language there are many different definitions of language different linguist different researchers different teachers as well as other people have come to think about language in very different terms and in different fields of study language has also been defined in very much different ways now we are going to take a look at one common understanding of how language is viewed basically everybody nowadays will believe will share the common belief that language is a tool for communication but what kind of a tool is is basically it is a systematized tool system system remember that it has to be systematic the purpose is for communication and it takes two forms it can be written and it can be spoken.
Language can be understood simply as a systematic or systematized tool of communication that can be spoken or written now we have understood what language is.
What else do we need to know about it we got answer this question what are the function is a language we know that language is a communication tool but what what functions the exactly does it serve how many functions are there and over the course of communication what can language do to help us also there have been many different views on on the functions of language and now we're going to take a look at a point of view of a very famous researcher Jacobsen in 1960 he observed language the development language the use of language into society and he came up with six basic functions of language first one called referential what is referential by the word referential we know that which is used to refer to something for example when I talk to you about my dog I say okay. This is my dog it's a lovely dog my dog name's is Jody for example something like that.
We say referential is used the language is used to talk about something to refer to things or people in the real world score referential that is my teacher. This is my pen these are my hands. This is my face and. This is the video that you are watching referential the next function is called poetic from the word poetic certainly you would have guessed for yourself what it means poetic literary when language is used for its own sake we see language not it doesn't necessarily refer to things or people in the actual world sometime it is used in a more meaningful way anymore unless a poetic way with lots of let's say what do we call it shiny meaning that's it or let's say metaphorical.
Poetic is like a little Rory use of language I'm gonna take an example of this poem written by Shakespeare let's say shall I compare thee to a summers day thou art more lovely and more temperate not.
Long as men can breathe or eyes can see.
Long lives this and this gives life to thee well we see most of the language of this poem does not actually refer to anybody in the real world but it is a literary use of the language and we say the function is poetic now we are going to take a look at the next function which is emotive emotive is when the language is used to talk about express your own emotion it is also called expressive or affective.
What is surprised you can say wow. This is amazing. This is such a lovely video. This is.
Funny I'm gonna take a look at this one more time I'm gonna refer to this to all of my friends or when we when you're too surprised by something you don't even believe your eyes you're gonna say wow holy cow right a holy shit a holy F like that emotive use of language used to express your emotions the next use is cognitive cognitive remember the pronunciation when we say cognitive. This is no longer about yourself. This is about the other person we understand the children because the communication sometimes we need to address another person.
For example when Jerry sends to talk Jerry is the a dresser and Tom is the addressee Jerry is the sender tom is the receiver of the message Jerry said get the fuck out of here.
That is the conative use of language Tom get the fuck out of here let's say Jerry is addressing Tom and.
Tom becomes the receiver of the message of the information. This is the corner of use of language when you are addressing someone in order to attract the attention you know that. Okay, I'm talking to you you better listen to me watch this video one more time in order to understand everything better that's it something like that corner tip use the next use of language is Phatak not emphatic but Phatak when we say Fanta it would like to really let's say interaction interactional the instructional aspect of language and when we say interaction we mean over the course of communication we have to address another person we have to say hello to them we gotta say goodbye to them.
For example when a day was writing a song to whoever it was that she had in mind it can be considered as the fasiq use of language hello from the other side.
Hello or goodbye or whatsoever those phrases can be called Phatak because they are used in insurrection in order to catch the notice of the other person finally metalingual when we say metalingual how do you understand it matter means referring to something itself matter lingo means using language to refer to the language metacognitive meanings using thinking to talk about thinking metalingual is the use of language to discuss language for example when I correct you essays I used my language to correct your language I use my language to describe to analyze the synthesize to comment on your language that is called a metalingual use of language.
Those are the six basis functions of language that Jacobson has summarized for us other linguists have also put forward some other functions and you might want to study more of them in this video we've been able to answer the questions of what is language and how many functions it can serve you may want to watch this again your dentist and it better to press the idea of language and function and I suggest you study more google the word language in google functions of language we have many other problems related for example language functions is that different or the same with the functions of language.
You may want to find out for yourself thank you very much and goodbye for now see you.