I'm wearing my glasses to protect from them from the screen computer screen because it will ruin your eyes but I did not believe that before but it will ruin your eyes.
I have to spend a lot of time looking at the screen.
That's died glasses anyway, moving on.
I get a lot of requests for a lot of different things and one of the things that I'm going back to language learning now because it's seemingly what.
Many people are confused about again the people who want to think that linguistics and language learning that all the linguistics is is is about language learning or or that's all they really care about they don't know anything about actually the field which is giant once again about linguistics.
I'm going to talk about one of the problems that's a pretty thats pretty prevalent and how you can actually use linguistic knowledge from field linguistics as part of few linguistics and part of a lot of linguistics areas descriptive grammar to cure that and. This is one of the things that most people do and I'm speaking to the English speakers because of the majority of people who want to learn second third fourth language are native English speakers that's their l1.
L1 is your native maternal mother tongue almost all synonyms for l1 speaker.
L1 speakers biggest problem is that that that's how they see the world that's how they've related to the world and that's how there are you use the computer analogy that's our operating system there l bonus or operating system.
They're trying to install another system but the system is not as complete they don't realize how long it took them to learn their l1 and.
What happens is they're l1 contaminates interferes or basically tries to right the l2 as if it were the l1 and that is a mage because of a lot of adults are somewhat analytical when they learn so. This is again like the left brain approach there's ways to get around that there are people who aren't that way but the majority of people especially the autodidactic people who want to think I've like to learn on my own will know language it's going to serve you as a self learner unless you just want to read and write actual listening and speaking means that you're going to do those things and if you can't do those things you're never going to give it to any level anyway.
What I want to talk about is want some just a few an example here of how an l1 causes problem in an l2 one of the largest language is that people want to learn and worldwide as l2 is French that's because there's a huge literary history in French there also Francis responsible for legal systems that a lot of the like the West is based off of the trench system the are they also the philosophy educational principles all of these things are generating from the French.
There's a lot of parades of prestige language that's what I'm getting to it was also a lingua franca which is in Latin is actually the it means the same thing that the it was the french language meeting the common language it's still very strong many people speak it it's not geo lot which gives it a lot of power and.
The l1 english speakers make a lot of errors because they want to apply like I said English and on to the French end i'm gonna i'm going to give you a quote from pierre carpets who did his own system at yale for learning french for instant action it's huge was done in the 80s it made a huge impact and it was spun off into other languages that his approach and it's a very good approach the you're not gonna be able to do it on your own know for all you people want to cry but the course it's not mad no language is meant to be in isolation anyway.
The point here is his saying was French is not English with different words that's what a lot of people think they think another language is there l1 well how do I say this you know while we say it this way well that is your operating system X your l1 not everything is approach to it as you get further and further away from the typology that your languages in because right now the typology of English is a visit is an SEO language subject-verb-object. This is these are all. This is the subject and verb. This is option. This is optional the object is optional because this would be a transfer to bourbon intransitive room you just need this. This is mainly now if you do an imperative go then you then it would just be the / but that's an occurrence the declarative sentences. This is how the structure is going to be SVO.
That's how languages are usually written what they are now as you get away from that.
You go to like a Gaelic Celtic language that's going to be verb initial and that's very difficult a lot of people have problems with Japanese because it's actually it's not really subject it's topic and I won't go in these explanations the object and then the verb the verb is the only thing that is mandatory.
These these are like. This is showing if they're optional um I'm not going to get into that.
That's why a lot of people have problems none of the script system also is very difficult that's women Jeff's Japanese difficult hiragana katakana and the kanji that's what makes it difficult but I'm going to tackle French for a second and one of the things that people have a big problem with is they want to try to take tell one from English and say for example i'm searching I search for I search for my dog. Okay, now in English. This is where we're going to get into a little descriptive grammar here I searched my handwriting is just quick. Okay.
It's not going to be very legible I searched for my dog. Okay.
What we have here as we take this apart we've got a we have a noun phrase well actually called a determiner phrase i will skip some of that right now. This is a verb phrase. Okay, and then and then we have here what it's called an ED oblique can a bleak here the oblique is because there's a preposition.
What we have if we if we look at this we have a noun phrase verb phrase oblique the oblique is because there's a preposition and the prepositional phrase becomes the preposition than with a noun phrase. Okay, or a determiner phrase now i'm going to leave out the this talk about the determinant phrase it is correct it's very it's very correct its Chomsky and to use that determinant raised but he's correct for English especially it is a determiner of race and it's a lot its ways that I can prove that to you but I don't need to do that right now.
We have this we have a determiner phrase word phrase and oblique. Okay.
What happens is this in it this in the descriptive terms is called a semi transitive verb now those of you who've learned a prescriptive grammar which is what you most of you think all there is to grammas prescriptive rules actually it derives what is descriptive becomes prescriptive for the learner now native speakers outline speakers are changing things what what used to be that could be done is no longer done just like English is leveling right now it's losing its conjugation.
That means it's going to become even more isolating and isolating language because it's inflections are going people make a lot of mistakes that you hear things like he don't which is incorrect if he doesn't did you hear that quite a bit also they're trying to eliminate the subjunctive if if I was it's not that's not correct if I were. Okay, the war is the subjunctive subjunctive change of the verb showing ear realis which is another term that gets into it when you know those things you know how to speak correctly in the language this one I'm getting to hear the descriptive.
Anyways semi transitive what's the deal with the semi transitive work because as you learn in school in if you were an l1 English speaker you only learn that there are transitive intransitive verbs and the interest of verbs have no carry no action right and the transitive verbs carry through there has to be a there has to be an accusative a direct there has to be a direct object after the verb.
What does a semi what's a semi transitive verb the semi transitive verb is a verb where there is an action carried through but it's carried through to the oblique ok.
Search if you will look it up to search because in English. This is a sign of the infinitive or the knot or the non-finite that's the way we speak in linguistics non-finite part of the verb but if we change this to I search ok I search. This is called al indicated because it's missing something you still need something you'll see someone says I search you'll say for what in English if your native speaker you're going to ask for what ok and. This is a litigated for what are you searching that is the question form because. This is fronted the whs are fronted to make a question in English.
Now I search.
4 because 4 is a preposition in this case and it signals an oblique which is not a direct it's not a direct object but it is it really is. This is where prescriptive grammar falls apart search for. This is has to be worked this has to be looked at together these things co-locate together that search for our ice unites a search to let them l two speakers will will mix the prepositions they say I search to you what they mean is I search for you.
I know once we go search for you search to me it doesn't it make sense because semantically is striving other concepts in their head anyway.
I'm getting deep into how language changes how you view the world that's what it's about.
I searched for right.
What happens when when L 1 speakers want to learn this which is the bird but Josh a in in French they tried to click the preposition they want to look for a preposition.
They try to translate then from there l1 and.
They're going to say things like you should good well yeah. This is horrible because this isn't needed. This is the difference because in French it's even harder than say the wrong thing they're the construction.
Off for me the this it's just if you're to do it in English if I glosses I search for our look look for and I have to say the four in English but it's not there I just search my dog now that's what does it make sense to a an l1 English you're here and say I look my dog or I searched my dog what that means like searching them right you know checking them out like airport security.
That semantically means something different to them but. This is not English it's French. Okay.
You have to look at what will help you here is if you don't do no descriptive grammar you know the fact that. Okay, if we look for the verb search in English we know that it drives. This is what it's called if you look this up there like there's Leveson verb things it's going to drive a pattern i'm going to use not a phrase for this. Okay, it's determiner phrase is more accurate noun phrase verb phrase oblique this this has to have this structure okay. This is where syntactical morphological things come in to play now if we're looking for sure shake in in French this requires noun phrase verb phrase and then noun phrase again. This is a direct. This is the accusative to use Latin terms. This is the direct object ok. This is what really really really is.
If you know that these two you don't you don't put the l1 onto the l2 the l2 is completely different and the structure is different because they view the world differently.
To learn another language and then to speak fluently is to be able to construct the world in a different way and. This is a slight example how descriptive grammar from linguistics can make your life easier when you know these things and fact there's I saw a guy who is on them on the YouTube who is basically teaching people parts of this whole field linguistics sort of thing a sort of a beginners course at debutant to use the French social the principal yeah anyway, never mind it using that to teach people how to learn languages more efficiently so. This is this is what I'm giving you is a way right now to tackle any language you're going to have to learn descriptive grammar and descriptive grammar is going to age you that's why I feel inglis can learn any language in the world's one of the reasons I'm not going to get into all that up cover some of the thing what now I've done is give me a very concrete example of how scripted grammar can make life easier. Okay.
Once again if you want to make a comment real name real photo if you have something you know you're going on your diatribes like allow the sick of pants of the would-be gurus on youtube and i'm going to be a video people ask me who do i think are actually good polyglots and I'll do one on that but anyway, if you're going to make any sort of you know attack me I don't want to hear your opinions I want citations of research. Okay.
I just covered something very quickly this course is many courses the coursework to understand i'm not going to do a whole lecture series for you to get three information free thing once again like i said if you're really serious you can contact me and I will in the future be doing things for those people who are who are very sincere about their the language learning and when I have time what I have available time. Okay.
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